In 1988, when Canadians celebrated the 30th anniversary of hospital insurance and the 20th anniversary of medical services insurance, the festivities were muted. Was the system functioning well or were Canadians too dependent on biomedical treatment? Had the federal and provincial governments sorted out their respective roles or were there yet battles to be fought? Were the cost overruns at Canadian hospitals a sign of increased demand or of inefficiencies? Was there equal access to services across the country or were some provinces more likely than others to provide up-to-date technology? Were doctors and nurses properly distributed? Why were Canadians failing to undertake exercise programs, stop smoking and limit their alcohol use? And should governments be responsible for modernizing the aging infrastructure or should private enterprise be allowed to participate? All of these questions would require answers in the decades to come.